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If these layers were stacked upon one other, graphite would be the result. Graphene’s discovery was announced in 2004 by Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim, who used adhesive tape to detach a single layer of atoms from graphite to produce the new allotrope.

Atoms of extraterrestrial noble gases helium-3 and argon-36 have been found trapped within buckyballs on Earth.

Diamonds are used in jewelry and – because they are so hard – in industry for cutting, drilling, grinding, and polishing.Graphene has a 2D crystal structure.(Fullerenes can sometimes exist in amorphous form.) Carbon can also exist in an amorphous state.Many allotropes commonly described as amorphous, however, such as glassy carbon, soot, or carbon black usually have enough structure to not be truly amorphous.Interestingly, graphite is one of the softest substances and diamond was thought, until recently, to be the hardest naturally occurring substance.An extremely rare allotrope of carbon, lonsdaleite, has been calculated, in pure form, to be 58% stronger than diamond.

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